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研读高考英语试卷_把握高考复习方向

2011-8-9 06:24:39| 发布者:jiaojiao| 浏览:617| 来自:亿开网

研读高考英语试卷 把握高考复习方向!
    北京海淀区教师进修学校 胡小力
    认真研读高考英语试卷,明确复习备考内容和考试要求,把握复习的难点和重点。这样有的放矢,有利于提高复习备考的效率,减轻不必要的负担。
    一、 听力
    听力是与外国人直接交往中必不可少的一种语言能力。高考英语听力试题要求考生能够听懂熟悉的日常生活中发音清楚、语速较慢的简短独白和对话。听力部分分为两节。第一节由5个小题组成,每段录音材料播放一遍。考查考生理解简单的事实性信息和进行简单推理的能力。第二节由15小题组成,每段录音材料播放两遍。
    1、听力试题对考生的具体要求
    (1) 理解主旨、要义
    任何一段对话或独白总会围绕一个主旨或一个中心思想展开。有时,主旨和要义会比较明确;有时则会贯穿整个对话或独白,需要考生自己去归纳、概括。
    例如:what are the two speakers talking about?
    a. a fine boat.   b. their friend, tom.   c. the weather.
    录音材料:
    m: i hope it'll be fine tomorrow. i'm going boating with tom.
    w: oh, i think it will be fine.
    m: are you sure?
    w: yes, i heard it on the radio.
    对话中说话者开篇即说希望明天天气好,对方谈了自己知道的一些这方面的情况。由此可以明显地看出,双方在讨论天气,因此正确选项为c。
    (2) 获取事实性的具体信息
    为了说明和解释主旨,对话或独白中需要一些具体信息,如时间、地点、人物等。这些信息是理解和把握对话主旨必不可少的内容,也常常是听力考试的重点项目。
    例如:1. what did the man have to do in the morning?
    a. he fed the chickens.
    b. he cleaned the bathroom.
    c. he carried water for the family.
    2. why did the man go to school on foot?
    a. no bus ran in that direction.
    b. the school was near.
    c. his family was poor.
    nday.
    a. he was taken to church three times.
    b. he stayed at home all day.
    c. he played in the street.
    录音材料:
    now, you want to know about life in the past. right? i can tell you. when i was a boy, things were different. i had to get up at six every morning. that was not very bad in summer, but in winter it was cold. and we didn't have any hot water in the house. we had to wash in cold water. we didn't have a bathroom. my dad had some chickens. i had to feed them every morning and then i had to walk to school with my little sister. it was two miles to school and two miles back in the evening. but it always seemed longer in the morning when we were going to school. there was a bus, but we didn't have the money. and we had to go to bed at seven o'clock every night. we couldn't watch tv because there wasn't any. on sundays we had to go to church three times---morning, afternoon and evening. and we couldn't play outside on sundays. but it wasn't all bad. we had some good times. we could go out and our parents didn't have to worry about us. there weren't so many cars on the roads then, so the streets were safe to play in. and there were not many robbers and thieves in those days. we had to work hard and we weren't able to buy all those things in the shops today. life was hard, but it was simple and people were happier. i don't think i'd like to be young today.
    1.该试题考查考生对事实性具体信息的掌握情况。 谈话者讲到,他每天早晨不得不喂父亲养的一群鸡,所以正确选项为a。
    2.该试题考查考生对事实性具体信息的掌握情况。谈话者讲到, 学校距离他家有两英里(seum.
    该试题考查考生对对话背景的推断能力。由双方谈话的内容及双方说话的语气等可以推断出,这是发生在售货员和顾客之间的对话,谈话的背景是商店,因此正确选项是a。
    录音材料:
    w: can i help you?
    m: yes, i bought this radio two days ago, but i'm afraid it doesn't work. i'd like to change it
    for another one.
    w: oh, dear. yes, of course. have you got your receipt?
    m: yes, here it is.
    w: thank you. just a moment, please.
    (4) 理解说话者的意图、观点或态度
    一般来说,说话者总会有说话的意图,或提出问题或回答问题,阐述自己的想法,或是表明自己的态度或意见。这在很大程度上有助于对整体对话的理解。有时,说话者的意图或观点是明说出来的,有时则隐含在对话的字里行间,需要听者自己去揣摩、推理。
    例如:what is the most probable result of the conversation?
    a. the man got his radio repaired.
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研读高考英语试卷_把握高考复习方向

e man got a new receipt.
    c. the man got a new radio.
    录音材料:
    w: can i help you?
    m: yes, i bought this radio two days ago, but i'm afraid it doesn't work. i'd like to change it
    for another one.
    w: oh, dear. yes, of course. have you got your receipt?
    m: yes, here it is.
    w: thank you. just a moment, please.
    该试题考查考生对说话者态度和观点的理解情况。售货员对顾客的换货理由表示理解,并要求其出示发票,由此即可看出她对此事的态度及此事的结果:顾客换到一台新收音机,所以正确选项为c。
    从"考试说明"所给的听力试题样题分析,各语言材料的话题虽不可避免地多为"日常生活",但谈论的主题基本上各不相同。20个小题较好地反映了考试大纲对考生在听力部分的要求,其中,1个小题考查对主旨、大意的理解,10个小题考查对事实性具体信息的掌握,ch does the man want to borrow?
    a. $ 214.   b. $ 2ate?
    a. in 1987.   b. in 1986.   c. in 1985.
    录音材料:
    w: your brother graduated in 1986. what about you?
    m: i finished school a year later.
    该试题的关键词是1986和a year later,经过简单计算,不难选择a。
    数字类试题要领:
    1)听录音时注意-teen和-ty的区别和千以上数的辩记。
    2)注音街道、时间、汽车、电话等号码的习惯表达法。
    ble,等。
    5)注意一些与时间数字有关的词。如:later, early, start, ahead of, fast, slow 等。
    除了上述必备的知识外,对数字类试题,考生还可以边听边记,即一边听录音,一边在试卷的备选项中寻找该数字,并在旁边做上记号,同时排除干扰项,根据问题作出判断。
    (2)地点类
    地点类试题主要涉及谈话的地点、事件发生的地点,或谈话者来自何方及要去何方。这类试题可分为直接型和含蓄型两种。一般情况下,地点类试题比较容易辨别,通过阅读选择便一目了然。因为这些选择项大多数是由介词短语担当,或一些国家或地区的专有名词。
    例如1:where does this conversation take place?
    a. in the classroom.   b. in the restaurant.   c. in the library.
    录音材料:
    m: i'm very tired today. i've been here in the classroom all day reading and doing my homework. what about you?
    w: not too bad. but i'm hungry now. let's go to the restaurant, shall we?
    此题明确指出here in the classroom,正好与b项吻合,为直接型地点辨别题。
    例如2: where is the conversation take place?
    a. in a hotel room.   b. at a department store.   c. in a hospital.
    录音材料:
    m: is there anything i can do for you, madam?
    w: i'd like to see some curtains.
    对话中没有直接提到任何场所,属于含蓄型地点辨别试题,但是对话中提供了反映职业特点的常用句is there anything i can do for you和与环境情节有关的词some curtains, 据此考生可以推断出答案为b。
    地点类试题解题要领:
    1)抓住与特定场所有关的词、词组和句型,推断暗示的地点。熟悉这些对应关系,需要时自然就会有对应联想。例如:
    hospital: medicine, patient, fever, temperature, blood pressure, what seems to be the trouble?
    bank: account, check, interest, rate, cash, dollar, withdraw some money
    hotel: reception desk, single\double room, check in, check out,

研读高考英语试卷_把握高考复习方向

该试题的特点为:内容覆盖面广,考查范围为大纲中所列的所有语法项目;重点突出,强调动词用法的考查。单项填空试题的确侧重某些英语基础知识的考查,但是它们并不是对基础知识的简单记忆能力的考查,也不是对基础知识的孤立的考查。尤其近几年"ssed the plan that they would like to see ____ the next year.
    a. carry out   b. carrying out   c. carried out   d. to carry out (00年nmet)
    本试题考查过去分词的用法。正确答案为c。通过绿仅为26%。此题要求考生首先了解动词与动作主体或动作客体的逻辑关系(carry out 与the plan);并且有对复杂语句结构层次的语言知觉;有对定语从句的识别。该试题的定语从句使一些考生未能看到the plan与 carried out 之间的关系。
    例如2:_____such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river.
    a. having suffered   b. suffering   c. to suffer   d. suffered (01年nmet)
    本题检测考生在特定语境中对动词不定式和几种分词结构的判断与使用。首先应该通过分析题干句意,来考虑动词的不同非谓语形式在表达意思上的差别,而后作出选择。正确答案为a。本句想要表达的意思是"河流已经遭受如此的污染,现在要想清理也太迟了。"后面句子的动作发生在前面动词suffer行为之后,因此,所设空中应该选用表示"已经完成"状态的-ing分词的完成式having suffered。选项b. suffering为现在分词一般式,用来表示与句中主动词同时进行或存在的情况。选项c. to suffer为不定式形式,表示一种趋势。b、c选项都不能满足题干本身需要表达的基本句意,即"it may now be too late to clean up the river,"。选项d表示被动含义,因此也与句意不合。但是该选项干扰最大。
    例如ple, but it remain ____whether
    they will enjoy it.
    a. to see   b. to be seen   c. seeing   d. seen (02年nmet)
    本题是考查考生对非谓语动词形式在特定语境中使用的掌握情况。collins cobuild dictionary字典关于remain的用法有如下解释:if you say something remain to be seen, you mean it is not at all certain what will happen. 所以正确答案为b。该试题通过率仅为nd _____in the kitchen.
    a. smoke   b. smoking   c. to smoke   d. smoked (0nd doing sth. 所以正确答案为b。
    非谓语动词的理解与使用是高中教学的难点,也是高考英语单项填空试题中的失分点。所以考生在备考是要进行重点复习。
    2、完形填空
    完形填空试题是考查考生在阅读理解短文的基础上,综合运用所学词汇、语法知识的能力。从考生解题活动的本质特征上看,那种把单项语言知识简单地"对号入座"式的运用方法已经很难解决完形填空试题中的问题。英语的综合运用所涉及的解题活动是一种复杂的、高层次的思维活动,具体的要素包括:
    1)运用语篇知识和语篇分析方法在整体层面上领悟"残缺的"语篇的大概意思。
    2)在每一个具体项目上根据语篇的已知内容去推导未知内容,在这个推导过程中,考生必须在很大范围内激活尽可能多的相关知识项目,并逐一审视这些项目。
    man being does.
    for example, she has been learning how to exchange __p with one finger. she rubs her teeth with her finger __42__ she wants to brush her teeth. this is done after every meal.
    washoe has also been __4nd a __48__ pole. then she climbed onto the __49__ , grasped the pole, and __50__ down the food with the pole.
    washoe __51__ like a human, too. the scientists keep her in a fully furnish house. after a hard __52__ in the lab, she goes home.

研读高考英语试卷_把握高考复习方向

c. messages   d. feelings
    40. a. human    b. sign     c. spoken    d. foreign
    41. a. out     b. at     c. on      d. up
    42. a. when     b. until    c. since    d. while
    4seum
    45. a. pull     b. see     c. eat     d. reach
    46. a. problem   b. position  c. food     d. ceiling
    47. a. stand by   b. stand on  c. stand up   d. stand with
    48. a. straight   b. strong   c. long     d. heavy
    49. a. wall     b. box     c. ceiling   d. pole
    50. a. knocked   b. picked    c. took     d. pulled
    51. a. lives    b. works    c. thinks    d. plays
    52. a. task     b. lesson    c. time     d. day
    5ite    b. already   c. even     d. still
    55. a. see     b. answer    c. learn    d. gain
    (答案:age….
    a. human   b. sign   c. spoken   d. foreign
    该试题不理解下文的内容根本无法解答。下文讲到"…washoe points up with one finger. she rubs her teeth with her finger…."这显然不是 "human, spoken, or foreign language",而是 "sign language"。
    2)从词汇意义及用法的角度考虑
    完形填空试题中考查词汇意义及用法的题目逐年增加。做好这类试题,必须有较大的词汇量,还应该能够结合上下确定词义。例如seum
    句子中提到"ceiling",由此可以推断出是"room"。
    第48小题:
    the food was still too high to be reached. washoe found a ___48___ pole.
    a. straight   b. strong   c. long   d. heavy
    由于食品被放在太高的地方,由此推断要找"a long pole",而非"a straight, strong or heavy pole"。
    4)从惯用法和搭配的角度考虑
    惯用法和搭配也是完形填空试题考查的项目之一。

研读高考英语试卷_把握高考复习方向

ietly that the nurse at the desk didn't lift her eyes from the book.. mum pointed at a big chair by the door and i knew she wanted me to sit down. while i wanted, mouth open in surprise, mum took off her hat and coat and gave them to me to hold. she walked quietly to the small room by the lift and took out a mop. she pushed the mop past the desk and as the nurse looked up, mum nodded and said, "very dirty floors."
    "yes. i'm very glad they've finally decided to clean them," the nurse answered. she looked at mum strangely and said, "but aren't you working late?"
    mum just pushed harder, each swipe of the mop taking her farther and father down the hall. i watched until she was out of sight and the nurse had turned back to writing in the big book.
    after a long time mum came back. her eyes were shining. she quickly put the mop back and took my hand. as we turned to go out of the door, mum nodded politely to the nurse and said, "thank you."
    outside, mum told me; "dagmar is fine. no fever."
    "you saw her, mum?"
    "of course. i told her about the hospital rules, and she will not expect us until tomorrow. dad will stop worrying as well. it's a fine hospital. but such floor! a mop is no good. you need a brush."
    b
    most animals have little connection with animals of a different kind, unless they hunt them for food. sometimes, however, two kinds of animals come together in a partnership which is good for both of them. you may have noticed some birds sitting on the backs of sheep. this is not because they want a ride, but because they find easy food in the parasites(寄生虫)on sheep. the sheep allow the birds to do so because they remove the cause of discomfort. so although they can manage without each other, they do better together.
    sometimes an animal has a plant partner. the relationship develops until the two partner cannot manage without each other. this is so in the corals(珊瑚)of the sea. in their skins they have tiny plants which act as "dustmen", taking some of the waste products from the coral and giving in return oxygen which the animal needs to breathe. if the plants are killed, or are even prevented from receiving light so that they cannot live normally, the corals will die.
    c
    the idea of fighting a noise by making more noise sounds strange, but that's exactly what motor engineers are doing in germany and some other countries. car makers' research and development laboratories have already proved that mixing in more noise with the help of loudspeakers can reduce the unwanted noise.
    physicists have known about the technique for a long time. sound is made up of pressure waves in the air. if two sound waves of the same frequency mix so that the highest point of one wave happens at the same time as the lowest point of the other wave, the result is no sound. therefore, by producing a perfect copy of the noise and delaying it by half a wave cycle, we can kill the unwanted noise. using this technique many car makers are racing to develop noise-killing systems both inside and outside the cars.
    another good thing about the use of noise-killing systems is that it saves the need for a silencer; this not only reduces the weight of a car, buy also makes the motor burn less fuel and work better.
    some engineers believe that the noise-killing system will be used in most cars within a few years. but the car makers haven't decided if they will put it into production because it would add several hundred dollars to the cost of their cars.
    d
    during the summer holiday there will be a revised schedule of services for the students. changes for dining-room and library service hours and for bus schedules will be posted on the wall outside of the dining-hall. weekly film and concert schedules, which are being arranged, will be posted each wednesday outside of the student club.
    in the summer holidays, buses going to the town center will leave the

研读高考英语试卷_把握高考复习方向

main hall every hour on the half hour during the day. the dining-room will serve three meals a day from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm during the week and two meals from noon to 7:00 pm on weekends. the library will continue its usual hours during the week, but have shorter hours on saturday and sundays. the weekend hours are from noon to 5:00 pm.
    e
    events
    bicycle tour and race
    a bike tour will be held on august 26 and 27 (sat. & sun.). at 5:are and ride the first r will be from changli to the seaside at nandaihe, covering a distance of 20 kilometers. saturday night includes the stay at nandaihe and supper. sunday morning is free at the seaside. at noon all the people and their bikes will be taken back to beijing.
    cost: 200 yuan
    telephone: 64675027
    brazilian footballers
    the brazilian football club will play beijing guo'an team at the workers stadium on august 26. the club has four national team players. also coming is 1994 us world cup star romario who has promised to play at least 45 minutes.
    ticket prices: 60, 100, 150 yuan
    time/date: 4:gust 26 and 27 at the huairou mountain-climbing base. more than 10 teams from beijing, wuhan, dalian, jilin, and other places will take part in it. a japanese team will give an exhibition of climbing. free for spectators.
    take a long-distance bus from dongzhimen to huairou.
    time/dates: 9~12 am, august 26 and 27
    telephone: 6714ss?
    a. some animals and plants depend on each other for existence.
    b. some animals and plants develop their relationship easily.
    c. some plants depend on each other for food.
    d. some animals live better together.
    该试题考查对某一段落主旨要义的掌握情况。该段第一句"sometimes an animal has a plant partner."为主题句,明确说明了要谈的是动物和植物间的伙伴关系,紧接着用具体事例说明有些动物和植物之间存在着密切的相互依存关系,所以正确答案为a。考生必须通读理解整段大意,全面理解作者意图,才能真正把握准段落的主旨。
    第66小题 (细节c篇)
    besides its main use the noise-killing system can _____.
    a. make a car lighter
    b. make a car quieter
    c. reduce the cost of a silencer
    d. improve the performance of a silencer
    该试题考生对短文倒数第2段this not only reduces the weight of a car, but also makes the motor burn less fuel and work better一句的理解情况。reduces the weight of a car的意思相当于选项中的make a car lighter,所以答案为a。
    第7r and race" probably means _____.
    a. race   b. practice   c. part of the training   d. part of the tour
    该试题考查考生根据上下文对熟悉单词的生疏词义的推断情况。leg本来是考生非常熟悉的一个单词,意思是"腿",但在该文章此意显然不可接受。从句意"then, the next 55km leg,…,will be the competitive part of tour. "中推断出正确答案为d。
    第56小题 (推理判断a篇)
    when she took a mop from the small room what mum really wanted to do was_____.
    a. to clean the floor   b. to please the nurse
    c. to see a patient    d. to surprise the story-teller
    该试题考查从字里行间推断未言明信息的能力。从短文的有关内容可以推动出,mum拿拖把的目的是麻醉看门护士,以便进病房看dagmar, 所以正确答案为c。
    第62小题 (文章结构b篇)
    the underlined word "they" in the last sentence of the first paragraph refers to _____.
    a. birds and parasites   b. birds and sleep
    c. parasites and sheep   d. sheep, birds and parasites
    本段中谈到了birds, sheep, parasites三种生物,但是they前面的一个句子中谈的仅仅是birds,sleep之间的关系,且该句的含义也说明they指代的是birds,sleep,因此b为正确答案。
    第72小题 (作者意图c篇)
    the main purpose of announcing the above events is to give information about_____.
    a. visiting teams   b. things to do for the weekend
    c. famous players   d. prices to pay for the sports events
    该小题考查考生对作者意图及短文主旨要义的理解情况。题干中已经说明作者的写作意图是向读者提供一些信息。信息的具体内容由各项活动的内容和举办时间即可看出:周末可以选择的业余活动,因此b为正确答案。

研读高考英语试卷_把握高考复习方向

阅读理解试题解题"三步法":
    1)"略读"(skim=read quickly to get the main ideas),其主要目的除在于要了解短文主题及大意,还要辨识文体,以利于掌握短文全篇结构。记叙文常在开头交待出背景,然后以人物活动的时间、地点、为线索铺述情节的发展;说明文则应该注意其中心、主题,以及如何围绕中心展开所作的阐述,弄清层次,段落中常有主题句,也可以提供重要线索,帮助我们尽快地掌握短文的中心主旨。
    2)通读题干,做到"心中有数"之后,再将短文读第而遍,这样以寻找某些特定信息为目的的快速阅读(scan=look at quickly without careful reading, often looking for a particular thing); 按照题干所规定的范围与方向,逐题选出最佳答案;如果遇到要归纳或推断的题,一时难定答案,可以绕过,先做"细节"类型题。当然,命题者所给出的题目顺序一般也应该是符合对该文章阅读时由浅入深,由大意而细节再主题、全貌的认识过程的。
    ghing 82______
    together. they were eager know everything about 8estions. in fact, 84______
    they are planning to visit china in next year. 85______
    缺词:缺词的含义是句子中漏掉了必不可少的词,致使句子结构不完整,这类错误一般多见于功能词。例如名词前掉了冠词,两个动词之间少了不定式标记to等。第8're coming to join us on sunday. here is how you can find us.

研读高考英语试卷_把握高考复习方向

训练步骤:
    1、认真审题,明确要求。
    1)考生被假设为李华,所以用第一人称写作;
    2)写作目的是给外国朋友介绍路线,所以特别注意有关的表达方式;
    're coming to join us on sunday. here is hoe you can find us.   we'll have our picnic in the people's park. you know where that is, don't you? after you enter the park by the main gate, walk straight on till you come to a small river. cross the river and turn right. after walking for a while you'll come to a hill. walk round to the other side of the hill, and you'll see a lake. we'll have our picnic there in the small woods by the lake. i'm sure you'll have no trouble finding us. do come!
    yours,
    li hua
    4、认真审查,修改错误
    根据要点写成文章后,认真阅读,反复检查,修正错误是必不可少的。检查时着重检查是否漏掉要点,应用的词汇和语法是否准确,行文是否连贯,单词拼写与标点运用是否正确等。
    5、书写规范,卷面整洁
    书面表达的训练,一是要注意方法,二是要勤写勤练。平时注意语言的积累,鼓励学生用英语写日记或周记。同时注意练习书法,工整的书写在高考中是不会吃亏的。

    总之,2004年高考英语复习备考要认真学习两纲---"教学大纲"和"考纲"(考试说明),解读"考试说明"样题,遵循"夯实基本功,知识灵活运用,训练讲方法,能力大提升"的复习思路。复习备考专项、综合训练相结合,综合训练要适时、适度,重在反馈矫正,提高应试能力。
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